1. The basic ingredients for most soups and sauces is a good stock, and this is one reason why a stockpot should always be maintained in a kitchen.  Stock is obtained by simmering bones and selected vegetables in water, thereby extracting their nutriment nutrients and flavour.  The preparation of the basic type of stock is a straightforward process, and although weights and measures are given in the receipts recipes which follow, such quantities should be regarded as flexible, permitting variation within fairly broad limits.
  2. Fat which derives from skimming is a useful by-product.  It should be retained and clarified for first grade dripping.  Bones which have been boiled for more than six hours are of no further value and should be disposed.  It is important to note that any stock remaining at the end of the day should be reboiled and then stored in a cool place.


  1. Scum which rises when a stock first boils must be skimmed off.
  2. Fat rising during the cooking process must be skimmed from time to time.  This fat may be clarified and preserved for further use.
  3. Stock should simmer and not be allowed to boil rapidly.
  4. Stock remaining at the end of the day must be reboiled and placed in a cool place where air may freely circulate around it.
  5. The crust which forms on the sides of the stockpot as a result of a reduction by evaporation should be removed from time to time.
  6. Stock which has been stored over-night must be reboiled and checked before further use.